Noradrenergic innervation of human pineal gland: abnormalities in aging and Alzheimer's disease Academic Article uri icon


  • Using previously characterized polyclonal antibody directed against dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), immunoreactive fibers were demonstrable in pineals of 6 controls of various ages and of 3 individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abnormal, swollen axons were present in pineals from aged individuals and from individuals with AD. The pathology of noradrenergic axons in a structure innervated by the superior cervical ganglion suggests that peripheral noradrenergic systems may be affected in aging and in AD.

publication date

  • March 1989