To identify integral and peripheral plasma membrane (PM) proteins from Oryza sativa (rice), highly enriched PM fractions from rice suspension cultured cells were analyzed using two complementary approaches. The PM was enriched using aqueous two-phase partitioning and high pH carbonate washing to remove soluble, contaminating proteins and characterized using enzymatic and immunological analyses. Proteins from the carbonate-washed PM (WPM) were analyzed by either one-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1D-SDS-PAGE) followed by tryptic proteolysis or proteolysis followed by strong cation exchange liquid chromatography (LC) with subsequent analysis of the tryptic peptides by LC-MS/MS (termed Gel-LC-MS/MS and 2D-LC-MS/MS, respectively). Combining the results of these two approaches, 438 proteins were identified on the basis of two or more matching peptides, and a further 367 proteins were identified on the basis of single peptide matches after data analysis with two independent search algorithms. Of these 805 proteins, 350 were predicted to be PM or PM-associated proteins. Four hundred and twenty-five proteins (53%) were predicted to be integrally associated with a membrane, via either one or many (up to 16) transmembrane domains, a GPI-anchor, or membrane-spanning beta-barrels. Approximately 80% of the 805 identified proteins were assigned a predicted function, based on similarity to proteins of known function or the presence of functional domains. Proteins involved in PM-related activities such as signaling (21% of the 805 proteins), transporters and ATPases (14%), and cellular trafficking (8%), such as via vesicles involved in endo- and exocytosis, were identified. Proteins that are involved in cell wall biosynthesis were also identified (5%) and included three cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins, a cellulose synthase-like D (CSLD) protein, cellulases, and several callose synthases. Approximately 20% of the proteins identified in this study remained functionally unclassified despite being predicted to be membrane proteins.