Interleukin 33 Signaling Restrains Sporadic Colon Cancer in an Interferon-γ–Dependent Manner
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Interleukin 33 (IL33) is an inflammatory cytokine released during necrotic cell death. The epithelium and stroma of the intestine express large amounts of IL33 and its receptor St2. IL33 is therefore continuously released during homeostatic turnover of the intestinal mucosa. Although IL33 can prevent colon cancer associated with inflammatory colitis, the contribution of IL33 signaling to sporadic colon cancer remains unknown. Here, we utilized a mouse model of sporadic colon cancer to investigate the contribution of IL33 signaling to tumorigenesis in the absence of preexisting inflammation. We demonstrated that genetic ablation of St2 enhanced colon tumor development. Conversely, administration of recombinant IL33 reduced growth of colon cancer cell allografts. In reciprocal bone marrow chimeras, the concurrent loss of IL33 signaling within radioresistant nonhematopoietic, and the radiosensitive hematopoietic, compartments was associated with increased tumor burden. We detected St2 expression within the radioresistant mesenchymal cell compartment of the colon whose stimulation with IL33 induced expression of bona fide NF-κB target genes. Mechanistically, we discovered that St2 deficiency within the nonhematopoietic compartment coincided with increased abundance of regulatory T cells and suppression of an IFNγ gene expression signature, whereas IL33 administration triggered IFNγ expression by tumor allograft-infiltrating T cells. The decrease of this IFNγ gene expression signature was associated with more aggressive disease in human colon cancer patients, suggesting that lack of IL33 signaling impaired the generation of a potent IFNγ-mediated antitumor immune response. Collectively, our data reveal that IL33 functions as a tumor suppressor in sporadic colon cancer. Cancer Immunol Res; 6(4); 409-21. ©2018 AACR.
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