This study examined the inequality in cesarean section (CS) utilization and its socio-economic contributors.Retrospective two-stage stratified sample design.Data were extracted from two rounds of the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2004 and 2014. Concentration Index of CS utilization was calculated using the wealth quintile. Regression-based decomposition method was applied to assess the socio-economic contributors of inequality in CS utilization.The rate of CS utilization increased from 4.98% in 2004 to 24.21% in 2014. The utilization of CS was highly concentrated among the women of higher socio-economic status (SES) in both rounds of the survey. Results of the decomposition models revealed wealth quintile, higher education, higher number of antenatal visits, and being overweight or obese as the critical factors contributing to the inequalities of CS utilization.Bangladesh is now observing a rapid rise in CS utilization and women with higher SES are the main client group of this life saving procedure. There may have inadequate access for those who are relatively less advantaged, even when CS is necessary. Strong initiative from the government is necessary to ensure proper access to this service regardless of women's SES.