A recently identified novel mammalian cyclin (CYL1), induced by growth factors and apparently functional during the G1 phase of the cell cycle, is of potential significance, given that cell division is primarily controlled in G1. We have measured CYL1 gene expression in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM), a normal cell type dependent upon colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) for survival and proliferation. The induction of CYL1 mRNA levels correlated strongly with stimulation of DNA synthesis, since elevated CYL1 mRNA levels occurred in response to the mitogenic stimuli, CSF-1, and granulocyte/macrophage CSF, but not to nonmitogenic macrophage-activating agents. BMM are subject to cell cycle arrest by numerous agents, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and agents that increase cAMP. These antiproliferative agents suppressed CSF-1-stimulated CYL1 gene expression, even when added late in G1. This pattern of CYL1 gene expression was remarkably consistent with the ability of these agents to inhibit progression into S phase. The mechanisms of negative growth regulation are largely unknown, and given the likely importance of G1 cyclins in the control of cell division, we propose that antiproliferative agents may exert their effects by suppressing G1 cyclin gene expression.