Development and Validation of the Ankle Fracture Outcome of Rehabilitation Measure (A-FORM) Academic Article uri icon


  • STUDY DESIGN: Delphi panel and cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To develop and refine a condition-specific, patient-reported outcome measure, the Ankle Fracture Outcome of Rehabilitation Measure (A-FORM), and to examine its psychometric properties, including factor structure, reliability, and validity, by assessing item fit with the Rasch model. BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, there is no patient-reported outcome measure specific to ankle fracture with a robust content foundation. METHODS: A 2-stage research design was implemented. First, a Delphi panel that included patients and health professionals developed the items and refined the item wording. Second, a cohort study (n = 45) with 2 assessment points was conducted to permit preliminary maximum-likelihood exploratory factor analysis and Rasch analysis. RESULTS: The Delphi panel reached consensus on 53 potential items that were carried forward to the cohort phase. From the 2 time points, 81 questionnaires were completed and analyzed; 38 potential items were eliminated on account of greater than 10% missing data, factor loadings, and uniqueness. The 15 unidimensional items retained in the scale demonstrated appropriate person and item reliability after (and before) removal of 1 item (anxious about footwear) that had a higher-than-ideal outfit statistic (1.75). The "anxious about footwear" item was retained in the instrument, but only the 14 items with acceptable infit and outfit statistics (range, 0.5-1.5) were included in the summary score. CONCLUSION: This investigation developed and refined the A-FORM (Version 1.0). The A-FORM items demonstrated favorable psychometric properties and are suitable for conversion to a single summary score. Further studies utilizing the A-FORM instrument are warranted. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2014;44(7):488-499. Epub 22 May 2014. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.4980.


  • McPhail, Steven M
  • Williams, Cylie M
  • Schuetz, Michael
  • Baxter, Brett
  • Tonks, Peter
  • Haines, Terry P

publication date

  • 2014