A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the attachment sites of the proximal hamstrings Academic Article uri icon


  • Proximal hamstring tears represent a challenge. Surgical repair of such tears has been reported utilizing both open and endoscopic techniques. It was hypothesized that the proximal attachments of the hamstring muscle group could be reproducibly and consistently measured from pertinent bony anatomical reference landmarks.Fourteen fresh-frozen, human cadaveric specimens were dissected, and measurements were taken regarding the proximal attachments of the hamstring muscle group in reference to bony landmarks. A highly precise coordinate measuring device was used for three-dimensional measurements of tendon footprints and bony landmarks, and relevant distances between structures were calculated.The semitendinosus and long head of the biceps femoris shared a proximal origin (conjoined tendon), having an oval footprint with an average area of 567.0 mm(2) [95 % CI 481.0-652.9]. The semimembranosus (SM) footprint was crescent-shaped and located anterolateral to the conjoined tendon, with an average area of 412.4 mm(2) [95 % CI 371.0-453.8]. The SM footprint had an accessory tendinous extension that extended anteromedially forming a distinct footprint. A consistent bony landmark was found at the medial ischial margin, 14.6 mm [95 % CI 12.7-16.5] from the centre of the conjoined tendon footprint, which coincided with the distal insertion of the sacrotuberous ligament.The conjoined tendon was the largest attachment of the proximal hamstring group. Two other distinct attachment footprints were identified as the SM footprint and the accessory tendinous extension. The sacrotuberous ligament insertion served as a bony landmark. The anatomical data established in this study may aid in better restoring the anatomy during repair of proximal hamstring tears.


  • Philippon, Marc J
  • Ferro, Fernando P
  • Campbell, Kevin J
  • Michalski, Max P
  • Goldsmith, Mary T
  • Devitt, Brian M
  • Wijdicks, Coen A
  • LaPrade, Robert F

publication date

  • 2015