The relationship between foot posture and plantar pressure during walking in adults: A systematic review Academic Article uri icon

abstract

  • BACKGROUND:Foot posture is a risk factor for some lower limb injuries, however the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Plantar pressure analysis is one technique to investigate the interaction between foot posture and biomechanical function of the lower limb. RESEARCH QUESTION:The aim of this review was to investigate the relationship between foot posture and plantar pressure during walking. METHODS:A systematic database search was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Embase to identify studies that have assessed the relationship between foot posture and plantar pressure during walking. Included studies were assessed for methodological quality. Meta-analysis was not conducted due to heterogeneity between studies. Inconsistencies included foot posture classification techniques, gait analysis protocols, selection of plantar pressure parameters and statistical analysis approaches. RESULTS:Of the 4213 citations identified for title and abstract review, sixteen studies were included and underwent quality assessment; all were of moderate methodological quality. There was some evidence that planus feet display higher peak pressure, pressure-time integral, maximum force, force-time integral and contact area predominantly in the medial arch, central forefoot and hallux, while these variables are lower in the lateral and medial forefoot. In contrast, cavus feet display higher peak pressure and pressure-time integral in the heel and lateral forefoot, while pressure-time integral, maximum force, force-time integral and contact area are lower for the midfoot and hallux. Centre of pressure was more laterally deviated in cavus feet and more medially deviated in planus feet. Overall, effect sizes were moderate, but regression models could only explain a small amount of variance in plantar pressure variables. SIGNIFICANCE:Despite these significant findings, future research would benefit from greater methodological rigour, particularly in relation to the use of valid foot posture measurement techniques, gait analysis protocols, and standardised approaches for analysis and reporting of plantar pressure variables.

publication date

  • 2018