Chronic metabolic stress leads to cellular dysfunction, characterized by excessive reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The ER is gaining recognition as a key organelle in integrating cellular stress responses. ER homeostasis is tightly regulated by a complex antioxidant system, which includes the seven ER-resident selenoproteins - 15 kDa selenoprotein, type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase and selenoproteins S, N, K, M and T. Here, the findings from biochemical, cell-based and mouse studies investigating the function of ER-resident selenoproteins are reviewed. Human experimental and genetic studies are drawn upon to highlight the relevance of these selenoproteins to the pathogenesis of metabolic disease. ER-resident selenoproteins have discrete roles in the regulation of oxidative, ER and inflammatory stress responses, as well as intracellular calcium homeostasis. To date, only two of these ER-resident selenoproteins, selenoproteins S and N have been implicated in human disease. Nonetheless, the potential of all seven ER-resident selenoproteins to ameliorate metabolic dysfunction warrants further investigation.