Dryland salinity is a major problem in the agricultural areas of Western Australia, having significant detrimental impacts in both agricultural and non-agricultural arenas. Development of new woody perennial tree crops is an option for recharge control in the management of salinity and there is a focus on development of native species that are adapted to low-rainfall areas, with potential for commercial production. Acacia is an important genus for utilisation of woody perennials as there is a large number of species occurring in a wide variety of habitats, and many Acacia species are utilised throughout the world for a range of purposes. In Western Australia, the following three species are of interest for development for commercial utilisation in agroforestry plantings: A.�microbotrya, A. acuminata and A. saligna. All three species show a high degree of morphological variation and are likely to consist of several taxa. Lack of understanding of taxonomic entities and their genetic relationships will hinder the utilisation and development of these species. A combined genetic and taxonomic study has defined the morphological and genetic variation within the A. acuminata complex and identified several taxa. Similar studies will also be expected to define taxa within the A. microbotrya and A. saligna complexes.