Australian landscapes face significant environmental challenges in the coming decade. The fragmentation of vegetation following broadscale land-clearing has rapidly altered critical genetic and demographic processes within and among the remnants that still reside in these landscapes. These perturbations threaten the long-term persistence of many species. Although considerable research has been directed towards the management of rare species, little is understood about how common and widespread species respond to these new challenges. In this paper we review the current state of knowledge regarding species biology for some key Australian taxonomic groups to develop broad predictions about the major threats to species persistence, particularly for some of the most common and widespread floral components of fragmented Australian landscapes. The main focus is on associations between reproductive strategy, vulnerability to demographic and genetic threats, and implications for fecundity.