Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) and prune dwarf virus (PDV) are amongst the most common viruses infecting Prunus species worldwide but their incidence and genetic diversity in Australia is not known. In a survey of 127 Prunus tree samples collected from five states in Australia, ApMV and PDV occurred in 4 (3%) and 13 (10%) of the trees respectively. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) of amplicons from partial conserved regions of RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3, encoding the methyltransferase (MT), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and the coat protein (CP) genes respectively, of ApMV and PDV was used to determine the genetic diversity of the Australian isolates of each virus. Phylogenetic comparison of Australian ApMV and PDV amplicon HTS variants and full length genomes of both viruses with isolates occurring in other countries identified genetic strains of each virus occurring in Australia. A single Australian Prunus infecting ApMV genetic strain was identified as all ApMV isolates sequence variants formed a single phylogenetic group in each of RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3. Two Australian PDV genetic strains were identified based on the combination of observed phylogenetic groups in each of RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 and one Prunus tree had both strains. The accuracy of amplicon sequence variants phylogenetic analysis based on segments of each virus RNA were confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of full length genome sequences of Australian ApMV and PDV isolates and all published ApMV and PDV genomes from other countries.