1. A method for producing rapid [Ca2+] and [Sr2+] changes in the frog skinned muscle fibre preparation while maintaining constant all other cationic concentrations (Moisescu, 1976a, b) is described and analysed in detail. 2. Different experiments, some of them involving the Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein aequorin, as well as theoretical considerations, indicate that with this method one can produce a Ca2+ (or Sr2+) concentration change within 0.1--0.15 sec in a whole preparation having a diameter of 50 micrometer. 3. The rate of force development was similar to that observed in vivo. 4. The radial diffusion coefficient of EGTA in relaxed myofibrillar preparations was measured and found to be 4.6 x 10(-6) cm2sec-1 at 20 degrees C. 5. The sarcoplasmic reticulum in myofibrillar bundles was found to be active with respect to both Ca2+ and Sr2+ in the solutions used ([Mg2+] 1 mM; [Na] 30 mM; [K] 140-170 mM; [Cl] less than or equal to 20 mM; pH 7.10). 6. The amount of Ca released by caffeine from internal stores (previously loaded with Ca) can raise the total Ca concentration in the muscle fibre preparation by at least 1.8 mM. 7. The presence of 10 mM-caffeine in all bathing solutions reduced drastically the ability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum to accumulate both Ca and Sr.