Aims The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is greater in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Apolipoprotein (Apo) species have been associated with the development of type 2 diabetes in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine if circulating levels of Apo species can predict development of type 2 diabetes in women with previous GDM.
Methods Apo AI, Apo AII, Apo B, Apo CII, Apo CIII and Apo E levels were measured in 95 women with normal glucose tolerance, 12 weeks following an index GDM pregnancy. Women were assessed for up to 10 years for the development of type 2 diabetes.
Results Postpartum Apo CIII levels, and Apo CIII/Apo AI, Apo CIII/Apo AII, Apo CIII/Apo CII, Apo CIII/Apo E and Apo E/Apo CIII ratios were significantly and positively associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. After controlling for age and BMI, these associations, except for the Apo E/Apo CIII ratio, remained significant. In a clinical model of prediction of type 2 diabetes that included age, BMI, and pregnancy and postnatal fasting glucose, the addition of Apo CIII levels, Apo CIII/Apo AI, Apo CIII/Apo AII, Apo CIII/Apo CII, and Apo CIII/Apo E resulted in a net reclassification improvement of 16.2%.
Conclusions High Apo CIII levels and the Apo CIII/Apo AI, Apo CIII/Apo AII, Apo CIII/Apo CII, and Apo CIII/Apo E ratios are all significant risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes in women with a previous GDM pregnancy.