The inter-tester repeatability of a model for analysing elbow flexion-extension during overhead sporting movements Academic Article uri icon


  • This study investigates the inter-tester repeatability of an upper limb direct kinematic (ULDK) model specifically for the reporting of elbow flexion-extension (FE) during overhead sporting movements, such as cricket bowling. The ULDK model consists of an upper arm and a forearm connected with a 6° of freedom elbow joint. The ULDK model was assessed for inter-tester repeatability by calculating elbow FE during cricket bowling in two sessions, with unique testers applying the kinematic marker set in each session. Analysis of both elbow FE time-varying waveforms (statistical parametric mapping = 0% time different) and extracted discrete events (no statistical differences, strong correlations > 0.9) support that this model is inter-tester repeatable at assessing elbow FE within the context of cricket bowling. This model is recommended as a framework in future studies for measuring elbow kinematics during other overhead sporting tasks, with recommendations for further participant-specific considerations. Graphical abstract ᅟ.


  • Wells, Denny JM
  • Donnelly, Cyril J
  • Elliott, Bruce C
  • Middleton, Kane J
  • Alderson, Jacqueline A

publication date

  • 2018