International data indicate that rates of clinical trial enrolment for Adolescents and Young Adults (AYAs) with cancer are markedly lower than for any other age group. This paper reviews the recent literature reporting international trends in clinical trial enrolment since 2010. Subsequently, we present the first population-based, national assessment of clinical trial enrolment for AYAs with cancer in Australia. Reported rates of trial enrolment from Australia, Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom were variable, though consistently low, ranging between 2% and 29%. Trial enrolment was higher for younger AYAs (typically 15-19 years) and those attending pediatric hospitals, and this was replicated in the recent Australian data. The findings highlight a lack of substantial improvement in AYA clinical trial enrolment and in particular, a need for improved opportunities to access trials for patients treated at adult centers.