On-site aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treatment plants are implemented in many Australian wineries to treat the large volumes of associated wastewater they generate. Yet very little is known about their microbiology. This paper represents the first attempt to analyze the communities of three such systems sampled during both vintage and nonvintage operational periods using molecular methods. Alphaproteobacterial tetrad forming organisms (TFO) related to members of the genus Defluviicoccus and Amaricoccus dominated all three systems in both operational periods. Candidatus 'Alysiosphaera europaea' and Zoogloea were codominant in two communities. Production of high levels of exocellular capsular material by Zoogloea and Amaricoccus is thought to explain the poor settleability of solids in one of these plants. The dominance of these organisms is thought to result from the high COD to N/P ratios that characterize winery wastes, and it is suggested that manipulating this ratio with nutrient dosing may help control the problems they cause.