Five isolates of a filamentous bacterial morphotype with the distinctive diagnostic microscopic features of Eikelboom Type 1863 were obtained from activated sludge sewage treatment plants in Victoria, Australia. On the basis of phenotypic evidence and 16S rDNA sequence data, these isolates proved to be polyphyletic. Two (Ben 06 and Ben 06C) are from the Chryseobacterium subgroup which is in the Cytophaga group, subdivision I of the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides phylum. Two (Ben 56 and Ben 59) belong to the genus Acinetobacter, and one (Ben 58) is a Moraxella sp., closest to Mor. osloensis. The significance of these findings to the reliance on microscopic features for identification of these filamentous bacteria in activated sludge is discussed.