Two Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, strictly aerobic, pigmented cocci, strains Ben 107T and Ben 108T, growing in aggregates were isolated from activated sludge samples by micromanipulation. Both possessed the rare type A3 gamma' peptidoglycan. Major menaquinones of strain Ben 107T were MK-9(H4) and MK-7(H2), and the main cellular fatty acid was 12-methyltetradecanoic acid (ai-C15:0). In strain Ben 108T, MK-9(H4), MK-9(H2) and MK-7(H4) were the menaquinones and again the main fatty acid was 12-methyltetradecanoic acid (ai-C15:0). Polar lipids in both strains consisted of phosphatidyl inositol, phosphatidyl glycerol and diphosphatidyl glycerol with two other unidentified glycolipids and phospholipids also present in both. These data, together with the 16S rDNA sequence data, suggest that strain Ben 107T belongs to the genus Friedmanniella which presently includes a single recently described species, Friedmanniella antarctica. Although the taxonomic status of strain Ben 108T is far less certain, on the basis of its 16S rRNA sequence it is also adjudged to be best placed in the genus Friedmanniella. The chemotaxonomic characteristics and DNA-DNA hybridization data support the view that Ben 107T and Ben 108T are novel species of the genus Friedmanniella. Hence, it is proposed that strain Ben 107T (= ACM 5121T) is named as Friedmanniella spumicola sp. nov. and strain Ben 108T (= ACM 5120T) as Friedmanniella capsulata sp. nov.