Thirteen isolates of Acinetobacter were obtained from activated sludge plants in Victoria, Australia. Earlier 16S-23S rDNA genomic fingerprinting and partial 16S rDNA sequence data had suggested that these isolates might contain previously undescribed species. This view was confirmed here. A polyphasic taxonomic approach involving phenotypic characterization, near-complete 16S rDNA sequence data and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses support the view that seven novel genomic species can be differentiated in this group of isolates. However, when fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies were performed with a 16S-rRNA-targeted probe specific for the genus Acinetobacter, used to identify Acinetobacter in activated sludge plants, all these strains responded positively. This suggests that these isolates would not have been missed in earlier FISH studies where their role as polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria has been questioned. This report describes these isolates and proposes that they be named Acinetobacter baylyi (type strain B2T = DSM 14961T = CIP 107474T), Acinetobacter bouvetii (type strain 4B02T = DSM 14964T = CIP 107468T), Acinetobacter grimontii (type strain 17A04T = DSM 14968T = CIP 107470T), Acinetobacter tjernbergiae (type strain 7N16T = DSM 14971T = CIP 107465T), Acinetobacter towneri (type strain AB1110T = DSM 14962T = CIP 107472T), Acinetobacter tandoii (type strain 4N13T = DSM 14670T = CIP 107469T) and Acinetobacter gerneri (type strain 9A01T = DSM 14967T = CIP 107464T).