Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is closely related with metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), and coronary artery disease (CAD) is positively associated to MetSyn and FCH. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of MetSyn and its components between patients with FCH and a control group. We also investigated the role of MetSyn and diabetes mellitus (DM) on the incidence of CAD within the FCH group. Our study population consisted of 463 male and 243 female patients with FCH who were not receiving any hypolipidemic treatment, and 1128 men and 1154 women who came from the same geographical region. The prevalence of MetSyn was 42% and 19.8% among FCH subjects and controls, respectively, whereas MetSyn increased with age in both groups. The prevalence of CAD was 15.3% in the FCH group. Moreover, after dividing FCH patients into 3 subgroups, with and without MetSyn and with DM, CAD prevailed at a percentage of 15.2%, 11.1%, and 26.5%, respectively. However, statistically significant differences in the prevalence of CAD were observed only between FCH subjects with DM compared with the other 2 subgroups, even when an adjustment for age, sex, and smoking was conducted. People with FCH and MetSyn differed in several anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical characteristics, compared with the non-MetSyn subgroup of FCH. MetSyn is more prevalent in the FCH than in the control group. Among subjects with FCH, only DM was significantly associated with an increase in the prevalence of CAD in this subgroup compared with FCH individuals with or without MetSyn.