Molecular data show that the filamentous bacterium Eikelboom type 0092, frequently seen in Australian activated sludge plants, is a member of the phylum Chloroflexi. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes designed against cloned 16S rRNA sequences from a full-scale enhanced biological phosphate removal-activated sludge plant community, where this was a dominant filament morphotype, suggest that it can exist as two variants, differing in their trichome diameter. When applied to samples from several treatment plants in eastern Australia, each FISH probe targeted only the type 0092 filament morphotype against which it was designed. The patterns of FISH signals generated with both were consistent with the ribosomes not being evenly distributed but arranged as intracellular aggregates. The FISH survey data showed that these two variants appeared together in most but not all of the plants examined. None stained positively for intracellular presence of either poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates or polyphosphate.