OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to explore potential associations between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and serum uric acid (UA) levels. METHODS: The sample consisted of 2380 men and women free of cardiovascular or renal disease who participated in the ATTICA study. Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated with the MedDietScore. Serum UA was measured and hyperuricaemia was defined as UA concentration > 7.0 mg/dL in men or > 6.0 mg/dL in women. RESULTS: MedDietScore was inversely associated with UA levels (b-coefficient per quartile of the score = -0.07 ± 0.03, p = 0.02) independently of sex, presence of overweight, hypertension, or abnormal glucose metabolism, and alcohol or coffee intake. Those at the fourth quartile of MedDietScore had a 70% lower likelihood of having hyperuricaemia [odds ratio (OR) 0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11-0.82] compared to those at the first quartile, after adjustment for several confounders. According to stratified analyses by sex, body mass index (BMI) status, hypertension, abnormal glucose, alcohol and coffee intake, the inverse association between serum UA and MedDietScore remained significant in women (b-coefficient = -0.194 ± 0.055, p < 0.001), overweight subjects (b-coefficient = -0.103 ± 0.047, p = 0.02), in those with normal glucose metabolism (b-coefficient = -0.074 ± 0.037, p = 0.04), and in those abstaining from alcohol (b-coefficient = -0.212 ± 0.073, p = 0.004) and coffee (b-coefficient = -0.221 ± 0.096, p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower serum UA levels and lower likelihood of hyperuricaemia. These findings support a potential role of this dietary pattern in the prevention and treatment of hyperuricaemia and gout.