Following isolation and purification, it is often necessary to store proteins and peptides for extended periods of time before performing detailed biophysical, enzymatic, and structural proteomics. Therefore, it is essential that the pure target protein maintain its original biological (or functional) behavior over an extended period of storage which may range from weeks to years. Protein pharmaceuticals must remain viable following extensive shipping and storage, and they must remain devoid of all possible inactivation processes. The shelf life of a protein depends on both the intrinsic nature of the protein and the storage conditions. Proteins (especially enzymes) must be stored at an appropriate temperature and pH range and frequently in the presence of concentrated (approximately 1 M) glycerol, sucrose, or a similar substance, for the proteins to retain activity and prevent aggregation. This article discusses the major causes of protein inactivation and describes a range of measures that can be adopted to maintain the stability and solubility of proteins.