Resistant and susceptible lines in Brassica rapa have different immune responses against Fusarium oxysporum inoculation. Fusarium yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Foc) is an important disease of Brassicaceae; however, the mechanism of how host plants respond to Foc is still unknown. By comparing with and without Foc inoculation in both resistant and susceptible lines of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa var. pekinensis), we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the bulked inoculated (6, 12, 24, and 72 h after inoculation (HAI)) and non-inoculated samples. Most of the DEGs were up-regulated by Foc inoculation. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that most up-regulated genes increased their expression levels from 24 HAI. An independent transcriptome analysis at 24 and 72 HAI was performed in resistant and susceptible lines. GO analysis using up-regulated genes at 24 HAI indicated that Foc inoculation activated systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in resistant lines and tryptophan biosynthetic process and responses to chitin and ethylene in susceptible lines. By contrast, GO analysis using up-regulated genes at 72 HAI showed the overrepresentation of some categories for the defense response in susceptible lines but not in the resistant lines. We also compared DEGs between B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana after F. oxysporum inoculation at the same time point, and identified genes related to defense response that were up-regulated in the resistant lines of Chinese cabbage and A. thaliana. Particular genes that changed expression levels overlapped between the two species, suggesting that they are candidates for genes involved in the resistance mechanisms against F. oxysporum.