We have determined the nucleotide sequence of the 3'-terminal half of the RNA genome of Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVE) using seven overlapping cDNA clones; an estimated 80-90 nucleotides at the extreme 3'-end remain to be sequenced. In conjunction with previous sequence data for the 5' half (16), we can conclude that the MVE genome contains a long open reading frame of 10,302 nucleotides that encodes a polyprotein of 3434 residues. Comparison of the MVE deduced amino acid sequence with that of other flaviviruses shows that MVE is most closely related to Japanese encephalitis virus, consistent with serological studies. Using N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, three nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS3, and NS5) have been identified and mapped on the MVE genome. MVE NS3 contains sequence motifs suggesting that its amino terminus may function as a serine protease. The central region of NS3 (in the linear amino acid sequence) has motifs that are found in NTP-binding proteins and helicases. MVE NS5 contains a conserved Gly-Asp-Asp sequence that is thought to be essential for RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.