The pollen of canary grass, which was introduced as a pasture grass from Europe, is a major allergen in the external environment of southern Australia. Seventeen allergenic fractions of canary grass pollen, ranging in mol. mass from 14 to 100 kDa, have been identified by immunoblotting, using IgE antibodies from sera of 24/30 grass-pollen-allergic subjects. The highest frequency of IgE binding (77%) was to a major 34-kDa fraction (tentatively designated Pha a I). This protein has been partially purified and identified as a group I allergen by immunodepletion experiments, with partially purified Lol p I (from rye-grass pollen), atopic serum, and Lol p I-specific MAb. In addition, microsequencing of the N-terminus of Pha a I showed an amino acid sequence identical to Lol p I. In a separate study, IgE binding to Western blots of Pha a I, Lol p I, and Cyn d I was investigated in 24 sera and found to occur in 19/24, 18/24, and 9/24, respectively. IgE binding to all three major allergens, and to both Pha a I and Lol p I, occurred in 8/24 sera. Our findings suggest that while the N-terminal sequence of Pha a I is identical to Lol p I, there may be specific allergenic epitopes exclusive to this allergen that are important for allergenicity in southern Australia.