Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the Western world. When detected at an early stage, the majority of cancers can be cured with current treatment modalities. However, most cancers present at an intermediate stage. The discovery of sensitive and specific biomarkers has the potential to improve preclinical diagnosis of primary and recurrent colorectal cancer, and holds the promise of prognostic and therapeutic application. Current biomarkers such as carcinoembryonic antigen lack sensitivity and specificity for general population screening. This review aims to highlight the role of current proteomic technologies in the discovery and validation of potential biomarkers with a view to translation to the clinic.