BACKGROUND:The role of diet and inflammation in successful ageing is not transparent, and as such, is still being investigated. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the inflammatory potential of dietary habits in the successful ageing of a random sample of older adults living in the Mediterranean basin and who participated in the MEDIS (MEDiterranean ISlands) study. METHODS:During 2005-2016, 3,128 older adults (aged 65-100 years) from 24 Mediterranean islands and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece were enrolled in the study. A multidimensional successful ageing index consisting of 10 components was employed. A validated and reproducible Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used to evaluate the dietary habits of the older adults. A nutrition anti-inflammatory (NAI) score based on the participants' specific dietary habits was assessed. RESULTS:Participants with high NAI scores (proinflammatory nutrition) had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and lower levels of successful ageing. After adjusting for several confounders, the NAI score was associated with successful ageing (-0.03, 95% CI -0.5 to -0.006). Stratified analysis by gender and advanced age revealed heterogeneity in the NAI score, predicting successful ageing. CONCLUSIONS:The inflammatory potential of nutrition was reported as an important factor for successful ageing, suggesting that further research is needed on the role of anti- and proinflammatory dietary habits in healthy and successful ageing.