We investigated the association between superoxide dismutase (SOD) Ala16Val polymorphism and the levels of oxidized LDL lipoprotein-C (ox-LDL-C) in two age-different Greek cohorts. Four hundred fifteen middle-aged (n=147 females: 43.2+/-13 years, n=268 males: 43.3+/-14 years) Caucasian Greek subjects consisted the middle aged cohort. One hundred seventy five elderly (n=88 females: 79.9+/-4 years; n=87 males: 80.6+/-4 years) were selected from the elderly cohort. Genotype data were obtained for all of them. Multiple linear regression analysis, stratified by gender and adjusted for age, smoking habits and body mass index as covariates, showed higher ox-LDL-C levels for the middle aged men with the Val/Val genotype, compared to the other allele (Ala/Ala and Ala/Val) carriers (65.9+/-25.7 vs. 55.7+/-20.5 mg/dl; standardized beta coefficient=0.192, P=0.012). On the contrary, elderly women with the Val/Val genotype occurred with lower ox-LDL-C levels compared to the Ala/Ala or Ala/Val genotype (74.2+/-22.1 vs. 86.5+/-26.6 mg/dl; standardized beta coefficient= -0.269, P=0.015). The same trend was also recorded in elderly men, however without reaching statistical significance (standardized beta coefficient= -0.187, P=0.077). Moreover, elderly men and women with the Ala/Ala or Ala/Val genotype presented higher triglycerides levels compared to Val/Val (women: 145.2+/-68.7 vs. 114.3+/- 34.3 mg/dl, P= 0.027; men: 147.8+/-72.4 vs. 103.7 +/-38.0 mg/dl, P=0.002). Additionally, middle aged men with the Val/Val genotype had higher HDL-C levels compared to the Ala allele carriers. The results suggest that SOD Ala16Val polymorphism is an age-dependent modulator of ox-LDL-C levels in middle-aged men and elderly women.