OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that omega-3 fatty acids have an effect on serum lipids and inflammation markers in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. DESIGN: The study followed a single-blind, randomized, crossover design. SETTING: The study was conducted at the Hemodialysis Unit of the Laikon General Hospital in Athens, Greece. PATIENTS: A total of 25 chronic HD patients were included in the study (16 men, 9 women, age: 51 ± 15 years). INTERVENTION: Patients were randomly assigned to one of the following 2 intervention groups: omega-3 fatty acids plus α-tocopherol (920 mg eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), 760 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 8 mg α-tocopherol in total per day) or α-tocopherol supplement (100 mg/week resulting in 14.2 mg/day) alone for 4 weeks. After a washout period of 4 weeks, the 2 groups were crossed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Medical history data were collected and anthropometric and nutritional intake evaluation was performed at the beginning and at the end of both interventions. Hematological and biochemical parameters as well as C-reactive protein levels were measured. RESULTS: No statistically significant results were recorded in the lipidemic profiles of the participants between baseline and the 2 interventions. C-reactive protein levels also did not change significantly between the 2 interventions (5.54 ± 3.33 to 6.70 ± 5.01 mg/L [P = .19] with vitamin E vs. 7.13 ± 5.04 to 6.87 ± 5.24 [P = .78] with omega-3, P overall = .53). CONCLUSION: The results of this study do not provide support for the positive effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in HD patients.