OBJECTIVE: Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) regulates plasma lipid distribution. The present study aimed to investigate whether the CETP gene (Taq1B) polymorphism predisposes to Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) depending on obesity status. METHODS: We studied demographic, lifestyle and clinical information in 237 hospitalized patients (185 males) with a first event of an ACS and 237 controls matched by age and sex. CETP Taq1B genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP analysis. RESULTS: Overall, the CETP genotype frequencies were, in patients: 14% (n = 33), 35% (n = 83) and 51% (n = 121) and in controls: 17% (n = 39), 33% (n = 78) and 50% (n = 120) for B2B2, B1B1 and B1B2 respectively (p = 0.72). A significant interaction (p for interaction <0.001) was observed between obesity status and CETP concerning the likelihood of having ACS. Therefore, we stratified our analysis by obesity status and observed that B2B2 was associated with a 0.27 times lower likelihood of having ACS among normal-weight people (OR = 0.27, p = 0.02). No significant relationships were observed among overweight or obese participants. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence of a protective effect of the B2B2 genotype of the CETP Taq1B polymorphism on the likelihood of having a first event of ACS in normal-weight persons.