Many risk factors for the development of asthma and allergies have been proposed; although genetics are a major factor, the subject's environment and lifestyle may also contribute maximally to the disease. The role of diet has recently been investigated and recognized as a potential risk factor. It has been suggested that the rise in asthma prevalence may partly reflect changes in the population susceptibility resulting from alteration in diet, especially a fall in antioxidant intake, rather than increasing environmental toxicity. Many studies have shown that the decreased consumption of fresh fruit, vegetables, fish, and the increased intake of food rich in fat, is associated with increased risk of developing asthma. More recently, larger dietary patterns beyond individual nutrients have been investigated such as the Mediterranean diet. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent and even contradictory. Despite some promising hypotheses and findings, there has been no conclusive evidence about the role of specific nutrients, food types, or dietary patterns in the development of asthma.