OBJECTIVE: Aim of the present study was to identify potential dietary, lifestyle, psychosocial and clinical correlates of underreporting in a population-based sample. METHODS: Following a random multistage sampling, 1514 men (46+/-13 years old) and 1528 women (45+/-13 years old) from the Attica area, in Greece, participated in this study. All participants underwent a standard assessment procedure that included clinical, psychosocial and lifestyle parameters. Food consumption was assessed through a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The ratio of energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR) and the Goldberg cut-off points were used for the classification of subjects as low energy reporters (LERs) and non-LERs. RESULTS: LERs represented 12.2% of the sample. This percentage was higher in obese subjects compared to overweight or normal weight (20.6 % vs. 9.9 % vs. 10.6 %, p = 0.05), as well as in women compared to men (14.6% vs. 9.9%, p<0.001). Data analysis was stratified by gender, since a significant interaction was observed between gender and LER group on several dietary parameters. Female LERs had higher Med Diet Score compared to non-LERs (30.6 +/- 8.2, 95%CI 30.2-31.04 vs. 26.9 +/- 6.3, 95%CI 26.05-27.7, p<0.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed that lower EI/BMR values were associated with younger age (p<0.001), higher BMI (p<0.001), presence of diabetes mellitus (p=0.012) and lower depression score (p=0.056) in women, whereas with younger age (p<0.001), higher BMI (p<0.001), higher education level (p=0.046) and higher anxiety score (p=0.08) in men. CONCLUSION: Several psychosocial and clinical characteristics operate in low energy reporting in both genders. Nutrition-related professionals should be aware of these gender-specific trends in dietary assessment procedures.