One of the psychological factors showing significant association with the development of coronary heart disease is hostility. However, the pathway by which hostility may affect coronary risk is not fully understood. Thus we evaluated the association between hostility and inflammation (thrombotic marker) in a population-based sample of males and females with no clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease.The ATTICA study is a health and nutrition survey carried out in the province of Attica, Greece, during 2001-2002. 410 participants (200 men 39+/-12 years old, and 210 women 35+/-10 years old) completed the Hostility and Direction of Hostility questionnaire (range 0-55) and had blood taken for the assessment of high sensitivity C--reactive protein, fibrinogen, white blood cell counts, and plasma homocysteine concentrations.111 (27%) of the participants were classified in the upper quartile of the hostility scale (>21 score) and 119 (29%) were classified in the lower quartile (<11 score). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that hostility score associated positively only with homocysteine levels (standardized Beta=0.124, adj. R2=6%, p=0.015), after controlling for age, gender, educational status, body mass index, physical activity levels, and dietary habits of the participants. In particular, a 10-unit increase in the hostility scale was associated with a 2.9 micromol/l rise in homocysteine levels.Our findings suggest a positive relationship between homocysteine and hostility; however, whether hostility influences inflammation or the thrombotic process remains to be evaluated by future prospective studies.