Effect of Right Ventricular Pacing on Right Ventricular Mechanics and Tricuspid Regurgitation in Patients With High-Grade Atrioventricular Block and Sinus Rhythm (from the Protection of Left Ventricular Function During Right Ventricular Pacing Study)
Right ventricular (RV) pacing has been linked with lead-induced tricuspid regurgitation (TR), left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and dyssynchrony, but the effect of pacing on RV function is unclear. We sought to investigate the effect of pacing on RV synchrony, RV function, and TR, and their association with LV function. In this substudy of the PROTECT-PACE (Protection of left ventricular function during right ventricular pacing) study of the effects of RV pacing in patients with preserved ejection fraction, 145 patients (76 RV apex and 69 non-RV apex pacing) had measurable RV parameters. We assessed tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), time difference between peak TAPSE and peak mitral annular plane systolic excursion (TM-APSE-dif), global LV longitudinal strain, E/e', TR vena contracta, and TR peak gradient. Echocardiography was performed just after implantation and at 2 years. TR parameters significantly worsened after 2 years, but pacing site was not associated with changes in RV and TR parameters. No temporal change in TAPSE and TM-APSE-dif was observed overall, but worsening of TM-APSE-dif was associated with worsening TAPSE. Global longitudinal strain and E/e' both deteriorated over 2 years; these changes were significantly associated. In a multivariate regression, worsening global longitudinal strain and worsening TM-APSE-dif were significantly associated with deterioration of TAPSE. Furthermore, increased E/e' and its deterioration were associated with worsening TR vena contracta and TR peak gradient, respectively. Decreased TAPSE was also associated with deterioration of TR vena contracta. In conclusion, RV pacing appears to worsen TR, an effect which might be caused by elevated LV filling pressure due to LV dysfunction. In this study, RV pacing did not affect RV function during 2-year follow-up, but such an effect might occur if RV dyssynchrony or LV dysfunction occurred after pacing. The effect of RV pacing site on RV and TR mechanics was minor.