OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare the survival of asymptomatic patients with previous revascularization and ischemia, who subsequently underwent repeat revascularization or medical therapy (MT). BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease is progressive and recurring; thus, stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is widely used to identify ischemia in patients with previous revascularization. METHODS: Of 6,750 patients with previous revascularization undergoing MPS between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2007, we identified 769 patients (age 67.7 ± 9.5 years; 85% men) who had ischemia and were asymptomatic. A propensity score was developed to express the associations of revascularization. Patients were followed up over a median of 5.7 years (interquartile range: 4.7 to 6.4 years) for all-cause death. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the association of revascularization with all-cause death, with and without adjustment for the propensity score. The model was repeated in propensity-matched groups undergoing MT versus revascularization. RESULTS: Among 769 patients, 115 (15%) underwent revascularization a median of 13 days (interquartile range: 6 to 31 days) after MPS. There were 142 deaths; mortality with MT and revascularization were 18.3% and 19.1% (p = 0.84). In a Cox proportional hazards model (chi-square test = 89.4) adjusting for baseline characteristics, type of previous revascularization, MPS data, and propensity scores, only age and hypercholesterolemia but not revascularization were associated with mortality. This result was confirmed in a propensity-matched group. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic patients with previous revascularization and inducible ischemia on MPS realize no survival benefit from repeat revascularization. In this group of post-revascularization patients, an ischemia-based treatment strategy did not alter mortality.