Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is evolving as a useful echocardiographic tool for quantitative assessment of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function. Recent studies have explored the prognostic role of TDI-derived parameters in major cardiac diseases, such as heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and hypertension. In these conditions, myocardial mitral annular or basal segmental (Sm) systolic and early diastolic (Ea or Em) velocities have been shown to predict mortality or cardiovascular events. In particular, those with reduced Sm or Em values of <3 cm/s have a very poor prognosis. In heart failure and after myocardial infarction, noninvasive assessment of LV diastolic pressure by transmitral to mitral annular early diastolic velocity ratio (E/Ea or E/Em) is a strong prognosticator, especially when E/Ea is > or =15. In addition, systolic intraventricular dyssynchrony measured by segmental analysis of myocardial velocities is another independent predictor of adverse clinical outcome in heart failure subjects, even when the QRS duration is normal. In heart failure patients who received cardiac resynchronization therapy, the presence of systolic dyssynchrony at baseline is associated with favorable LV remodeling, which in turn predicts a favorable long-term clinical outcome. Finally, TDI and derived deformation parameters improve prognostic assessment during dobutamine stress echocardiography. A high mean Sm value in the basal segments of patients with suspected coronary artery disease is associated with lower mortality rate or myocardial infarction and is superior to the wall motion score.