The combination of high energy expenditure and the borderline adequacy of perfusion make the subendocardium uniquely vulnerable to injury. Selective subendocardial involvement is usually a marker of subclinical disease. Technical advances in new noninvasive imaging modalities, especially in spatial resolution, now permit qualitative and quantitative assessment of subendocardial structure, function, and perfusion. Many newer techniques have the potential to provide superior prognostic information to current standard assessment methods. This review describes the contemporary capabilities of multiple imaging modalities for assessment of the subendocardium, and seeks to guide the clinician regarding the information and technical deficiencies of each modality.