Chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction is present in a number of clinical syndromes in which myocardial revascularization results in an improvement of left ventricular function, patients' functional class, and their survival. Early diagnosis of and treatment of viability is essential. Coronary arteriography is of limited value in diagnosis of viability. Noninvasive testing is essential for diagnosis, which can be matched to the pathophysiologic changes that occur in hibernating myocardium. However, no single test has a perfect, or near perfect, sensitivity and specificity, and thus, a combination of tests are usually needed. Algorithms are developed to integrate these tests in clinical decision making.