Chimeric hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar) genes were introduced, using polyethylene glycol treatment, into protoplasts isolated from embryogenic cell suspension cultures of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), a graminaceous plant that is an important forage crop in temperate pastures. Colonies resistant to either 200 mg/l hygromycin or 100 mg/l phosphinothricin, respectively, were recovered upon selection using bead-type culture systems. Stable integration of the transgenes in the genomes of plants regenerated from resistant callus clones was shown by Southern hybridization analysis. In situ hybridization of a labeled transgene-probe to metaphase chromosomes is shown for one transgenic primary regenerant. Expression of the transgenes in mature plants was demonstrated by HPH enzyme assay or by phosphinothricin-herbicide spraying.