Habitat complexity is an important factor governing species richness and habitat selection in birds. The present study examined this relationship in a large wandoo woodland in Western Australia. Habitat complexity (comprising canopy, shrub, ground vegetation, log and leaf litter cover) and bird species richness was recorded in 48 sites, each ~3 ha in size. We found no significant correlation of habitat complexity with species richness. We propose that the absence of such a relationship results from the resource-poor environment of the woodlands of south-western Australia. The relative scarcity of food resources results in a species richness threshold beyond which there are insufficient niches and resources to support additional species with increasing habitat complexity. Only two species exhibited significant associations with habitat complexity, with the western yellow robin (Eopsaltria griseogularis) occupying sites with higher habitat complexity, and the restless flycatcher (Myiagra inquieta) occupying sites with lower habitat complexity. Although some species may respond specifically to habitat complexity, management of avian biodiversity within Australian woodlands should take into account the potentially greater role that productivity and resource availability play in influencing species richness, rather than habitat complexity per se. Furthermore, the individual components comprising habitat complexity may be of equal importance in assessing relationship of species richness to overall habitat complexity.