The concentration of the amyloid AA-related serum protein (SAA) was markedly increased after endotoxin injections in mink, mouse, rabbit, and man. It was particularly studied during the development of endotoxin-induced amyloidosis of the mink. Protein SAA was markedly elevated in all mink 24 h after the first endotoxin injection but had fallen to relatively low levels before the onset of amyloidosis at about 4 wk. These results are consistent with SAA being a circulating precursor of the amyloid fibril protein, AA. However, both proteins may be derived by proteolysis from a common precursor.