Eighteen dinucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated from two octopus species, Pareledone turqueti and Pareledone charcoti, which are endemic to the Southern Ocean. Genetic diversity was assessed in samples of P. charcoti and P. turqueti from Elephant Island and Shag Rocks respectively. All except one locus (which has proved to be polymorphic in other species) were variable in the focal species and amplified between six and 30 and between four and 28 alleles for P. charcoti and P. turqueti respectively; mean expected heterozygosities varied between 0.38 and 0.95 (P. charcoti) and between 0.34 and 0.97 (P. turqueti), with significant (P < 0.05) departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at seven loci; three of these loci provided significant (P < 0.05) evidence for null alleles. Two pairs of loci isolated from P. turqueti demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) linkage disequilibrium. We are presently using these genetic markers to quantify spatial genetic structure in the genus Pareledone.