Background:High glucose and insulin concentrations seem to have a negative impact on bone health. However, the relation between the dietary glycemic index (DGI) and the dietary glycemic load (DGL), which has proved to be effective at modulating blood glucose concentrations after carbohydrate consumption, has yet to be explored in relation to bone health. Objective:The aim of the study was to examine the associations between the DGI or DGL and the risk of osteoporotic-related fractures in an elderly Mediterranean population. Design:The study was conducted in 870 subjects aged 55-80 y at high cardiovascular disease risk participating in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED)-Reus study. The DGI and DGL were estimated from validated food-frequency questionnaires with the use of the international glycemic index and glycemic load values, with glucose as reference. Data on osteoporotic fractures were acquired from a systematic review of medical records. We used Cox proportional hazard models to assess the risk of osteoporotic fracture according to tertiles of average DGI and DGL. Results:A total of 114 new cases of osteoporotic-related fractures were documented after a mean follow-up of 8.9 y. Participants in the highest tertile of DGI and DGL had a significantly higher risk of osteoporotic fractures than those in the lowest tertile after adjusting for potential confounders (HR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.15 and HR: 3.20; 95% CI: 1.25, 8.18, respectively). Conclusions:A high DGI and DGL are associated with a higher risk of osteoporosis-related fractures in an elderly Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. This trial was registered at isrctn.com as ISRCTN35739639.