Phosphorus (P) nutrition is always a key issue regarding plants responses to elevated CO(2). Yet it is unclear of how elevated CO(2) affects P uptake under different nitrogen (N) forms. This study investigated the influence of elevated CO(2) (800 µl l(-1)) on P uptake and utilization by Arabidopsis grown in pH-buffered phosphate (P)-deficient (0.5 µM) hydroponic culture supplying with 2mM nitrate (NO(3)(-)) or ammonium (NH(4)(+)). After 7 d treatment, elevated CO(2) enhanced the biomass production of both NO(3)(-)- and NH(4) (+)-fed plants but decreased the P amount absorbed per weight of roots and the P concentration in the shoots of plants supplied with NH(4)(+). In comparison, elevated CO(2) increased the amount of P absorbed per weight of roots, as well as the P concentration in plants and alleviated P deficiency-induced symptoms of plants supplied with NO(3)(-). Elevated CO(2) also increased the root/shoot ratio, total root surface area, and acid phosphatase activity, and enhanced the expression of genes or transcriptional factors involving in P uptake, allocation and remobilization in P deficient plants. Furthermore, elevated CO(2) increased the nitric oxide (NO) level in roots of NO(3)(-)-fed plants but decreased it in NH(4)(+)-fed plants. NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) inhibited plant P acquisition by roots under elevated CO(2). Considering all of these findings, this study concluded that a combination of elevated CO(2) and NO(3)(-) nutrition can induce a set of plant adaptive strategies to improve P status from P-deficient soluble sources and that NO may be a signalling molecule that controls these processes.