The cell walls of cereal endosperms are a major source of fibre in many diets and of importance in seed structure and germination. Cell walls were isolated from both pure wheat endosperm and milled flour. 13C CP/MAS NMR in conjunction with methylation analysis before and after acid hydrolysis showed that, in addition to arabinoxylan (AX) and (1, 3; 1, 4)-β-D-glucan (MLG), wheat endosperm cell walls contain a significant proportion of cellulose (ca 20%) which is tightly bound to xylans and mannans. Light microscopy showed that the cellulose was relatively evenly distributed across the grain endosperm. The cell walls contain a fibrous acid-resistant core structure laminated by matrix polysaccharides as revealed by AFM imaging. A model for endosperm cell wall structural organisation is proposed, based on a core of cellulose and interacting non-cellulosic polysaccharides which anchors AX (with very occasional diferulic acid cross-linking) that in turn retains MLGs through physical entanglement.