International mortality studies show that some subgroups of migrants have a higher risk of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) than the native-born. To investigate whether country of birth increases the risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cerebral infarction (stroke) hospitalization in Victoria, Australia. A retrospective analysis of Victorian AMI (ICD-10-AM codes I21 and I22) and stroke (ICD-10-AM I63 and I64) discharges from routinely collected hospital data in 2001-2002 was conducted. The outcome measures were directly age standardized rate ratios (RRs) of AMI and stroke hospitalization, calculated using 2001 Australian census data, with the Australian-born as the reference group. Males from 4 ethnic groups--USSR/Baltic; Southern Asia; Middle East; and Eastern Europe, displayed higher risk for AMI hospitalization than Australian-born men, whereas males and females from Southeast Asia and Northeast Asia were at lower risk. Furthermore, males from Western Europe and females from the Pacific were also at lower risk. Females from the Middle East, Southern Asia, and Southern Europe were at higher risk of stroke hospitalization than Australian-born women; in contrast, males from Eastern Europe, NorthAsia, Southern Asia, Southern Europe, and the United Kingdom and Ireland were at lower risk. Risk for AMI and stroke hospitalization varies by country of birth in comparison with the Australian-born population. It will be import to identify the factors associated with these varying risks in order to target preventive strategies aimed at reducing risk of AMI and stroke.