The Development, Evolution, and Modifications of ICD-10 Academic Article uri icon


  • BACKGROUND: The United States is about to make a major nationwide transition from ICD-9-CM coding of hospital discharges to ICD-10-CM, a country-specific modification of the World Health Organization's ICD-10. As this transition occurs, the WHO is already in the midst of developing ICD-11. Given this context, we undertook this review to discuss: (1) the history of the International Classification of Diseases (a core information "building block" for health systems everywhere) from its introduction to the current era of ICD-11 development; (2) differences across country-specific ICD-10 clinical modifications and the challenges that these differences pose to the international comparability of morbidity data; (3) potential strategic approaches to achieving better international ICD-11 comparability. LITERATURE REVIEW AND DISCUSSION: A literature review and stakeholder consultation was carried out. The various ICD-10 clinical modifications (ICD-10-AM [Australia], ICD-10-CA [Canada], ICD-10-GM [Germany], ICD-10-TM [Thailand], ICD-10-CM [United States]) were compared. These ICD-10 modifications differ in their number of codes, chapters, and subcategories. Specific conditions are present in some but not all of the modifications. ICD-11, with a similar structure to ICD-10, will function in an electronic health records environment and also provide disease descriptive characteristics (eg, causal properties, functional impact, and treatment). CONCLUSION: The threat to the comparability of international clinical morbidity is growing with the development of many country-specific ICD-10 versions. One solution to this threat is to develop a meta-database including all country-specific modifications to ensure more efficient use of people and resources, decrease omissions and errors but most importantly provide a platform for future ICD updates.


  • Jetté, Nathalie
  • Quan, Hude
  • Hemmelgarn, Brenda
  • Drosler, Saskia
  • Maass, Christina
  • Moskal, Lori
  • Paoin, Wansa
  • Sundararajan, Vijaya
  • Gao, Song
  • Jakob, Robert
  • Üstün, Bedihran
  • Ghali, William A

publication date

  • December 2010