Factor Structure of Four Visual-Motor Instruments Commonly Used to Evaluate School-Age Children Academic Article uri icon


  • OBJECTIVE:Having access to high-quality, rigorously developed, valid visual-motor integration assessment tools is the first step in the process of providing effective clinical services to children presenting with visual-motor integration problems. The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure of four visual-motor integration instruments through factor analysis. METHOD:The participants included 400 children ages 5 to 12, recruited from six schools in the Melbourne metropolitan area, Victoria, Australia. Children completed the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), Test of Visual-Motor Integration (TVMI), Test of Visual-Motor Skills-Revised (TVMS-R), and Slosson Visual-Motor Performance Test (SVMPT). The factor analysis was completed using SPSS. RESULTS:Results indicated that the VMI displayed six factors; TVMI, three factors; TVMS-R, four factors; and SVMPT, three factors. CONCLUSION:The VMI, TVMI, TVMS-R, and SVMPT exhibited multidimensionality, and it is recommended that the instruments be revised to enhance their construct validity and unidimensionality.

publication date

  • November 1, 2009